First off, don't worry you're not the 1st nor will you be the last person that has run into this problem. The primary cause of this is how AO gets patches from the server, it checks the file called version.id to see what your client's current version is then matches that with the server and downloads the proper patch. The problem is that Test Live patches have slightly different numbering then live, so when you create a dupe from your live client they have trouble syncing up, here is how to fix that.
First thing open windows explorer and navigate to your Anarchy Online Test directory that you just duped. For example mine is C:\AOtest\Testserver . In the base Testserver folder you will find the file "Version.ID" this should be located at the very bottom of your directory. Open this file with Notepad It will say something like this "18.3.1_EP1" which is the current version of the Live servers, we need to change it to something for test. Test uses a 4 digit version system so what you need to do is change "18.3.1_EP1" to "126.96.36.199_EP1" then hit save. Now when you start your test client it will connect to the server and patch.
Its easiest to just set the 4th version number to 0 and let it patch up, it may take a little longer if the server patch is 188.8.131.52_EP1 but it will patch you up.